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Some History on Cologne

A cologne is a blend of extracts, alcohol and water, each perfume, cologne, fragrance, is characterized by the ratio of ingredients. A perfume has a different concentration of extracts to an Eau de Toilette. Perfume has the highest concentration, followed by Eau de Parfum and Esprit de Parfum. Though they are less concentrated, the two latter fragrances leave an intense lingering scent. Eau de Toilette is much lighter, with the least concentrated fragrance being Eau de Cologne.

Fragrances and aromas spread to Europe as the Crusades made Europeans even more aware of the art of perfumery which had existed for centuries prior in the Middle East. By the Middle Ages trade in spices from east became hugely important in Western Europe; the same spices were used in perfumes, medicine and in food. By 1656 the guild of glove and perfume-makers was established in France. In Royal Court of Great Britain women would put fragranced sponges under they clothes. By the 17th century Europe was virtually swept away by the fad of perfumery. It was common for noble women to create their own fragrances by experimenting with different aromas. Louis-14 of France was considering restricting the use of perfumes because he felt jealous that his subjects loved fragrances more then him. When the Americas were discovered so was a perfume industry new to the Europeans. Balsam of Peru and American cedar, sassafras and vanilla immediately found loyal consumers in Europe. 

The creator of the first Cologne was Gian Paolo Feminis who arrived at his invention in 1709 - "Aqua Admirabilis". It is recorded that Napoleon Bonaparte used eight quarts of violet cologne every month.

Sometimes a less potent form of fragrance, such as eau de parfum or an eau de cologne, is more pleasing. Today, eau de cologne (or simply, cologne) means nothing more than a fragrance whose essential oil concentration is approximately 5% (as opposed to perfume, which has the highest concentration, typically ranging from 20% to 25%. Centuries ago, however, eau de cologne meant something quite different. It was a fragrance in its own right, connoting a delightful mixture of lavender, bergamot and neroli.



A Brief Chronology of the History of Cologne would include:

CHRONOLOGY: 
· 10th Century: Rose Water-Distilled by an Arab physician, 
· 12th Century: Lavender Water-Distilled by German Benedictine nun, Hildegard of Bingen. 
· 1370: Hungary Water-The first Alcoholic perfume, originally concocted for Elizabeth of Hungary. 
· 18th Century: Eau de Cologne- variant on Hungary water developed by the Farina brothers in Cologne, Germany. 
· Mid-18th Century: Lily of the Valley and Rose Geranium- perfumes by Floris of London, founded in 1730. 
· 1752: No. Six Cologne-Was made from a formula brought to America from England in 1752 by the founder of Caswell and Massey, Dr. William Hunter. The most popular scent in early America, it was sent as a gift to Lafayette by Washington while he was President. 
· 1794: 4711 Cologne-Based on a formula made by a French émigré friar, this scent was named after the house number assigned to the Mulhens Family perfumery's shop during the 1794 French occupation of Cologne. Napoleon used to bathe in a diluted version of this scent. 
· Mid 1800’s: Eau de Cologne Imperiale-Scent developed in the Mid-19th Century for the Empress Eugenie by Guerlain. 
· Lilac Vegetal-After-shave made for the Hungarian cavalry attached to the court of Napoleon III by Edouard Pinaud, the court perfumer. 
· 1856: Florida Water-Citrus-based American variant on Eau de Cologne. . 
· 1868: Hoyt's Cologne-Another American version of Eau de Cologne made this year. 
· 1889: Jicky-First highly-concentrated perfume (like 20th Century perfumes), made by Guerlain in 1889. 
· 1890: Floris No. 127-Made exclusively for Russia's Grand Duke Orloff, it was re-introduced in the 1940's when it became a favorite of Eva Peron. 
· 1890: Pink Geranium-Floris scent is introduced.
· Red Rose-Edwardian scent by Floris used most famously by Rosa Lewis, owner of the Cavendish Hotel. 
· L'Heure Bleue-Guerlain declared perfume of 1912. 
· 1922: Pavlova- perfume that quickly died until it was revived again in the 1980's. (Reputed to be a scent reminiscent of Shalimar.) 
· 1920: Chanel No. 5-The first expensively produced perfume using artificial scents, a strikingly modern innovation. . 
· 1925: Shalimar-"Eastern" style scent produced in 1925 by Guerlain. 
· 1926: Joy-"The most expensive perfume in the world" blended for Patou. 


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